BANYAREM Risk Reduction of Diffuse Pollution of Mining Origin

Country: Hungary
Start Date:   1/1/2005         Duration: 36 months         Project Type: RTD
Contract Number: GVOP-3.1.1-2004-05-0261/3.0
Organisation Type:  University research group / research institute
Contaminated land-->Contaminants-->Heavy metals
Contaminated land-->Information management systems-->Geographical information systems
Contaminated land-->Remediation options-->In situ treatment technologies
Contaminated land-->Risk management-->Selection of remediation options
Diffuse pollution-->Processes
Project objectives:
The BANYAREM Hungarian research and development project has the aim to develop a complex risk management approach to diffuse and residual (remaining after 
removal of point sources) pollution of mining origin. Risk management includes a tiered risk assessment procedure and the selection, testing and application
of the best possible remediation option with risk based target values.
Project Summary:
The project is funded within the Economic Competitiveness Operative Programme (GVOP) of the Hungarian Ministry of Economics and Transport and is co-financed 
by the EU within the European Plan. Project coordination: Dr.Katalin Gruiz - Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Agricultural Chemical Technology, Hungary.
The consortium includes the following Hungarian participants: 1. Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Department of Agricultural Chemical Technology, Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology
Group (BME, MGKT) 2. Soil and Agrochemical Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Science (MTA TAKI)3. MECSEK-ÖKO Environmental Company 4. Tatai Environmental Company Collaborator: Agency for Research Fund Management and Research Exploitation, Hungary (KPI) Diffuse pollution requires new strategy in risk management. The risk based management concept includes: 1. a tiered, GIS based Risk Assessment methodology,
developed on catchment scale basis and 2. the risk based planning and selection of the remediation concept and technologies. The work includes: 1. Qualitative Risk Assessment of sites and sub-sites for relative ranking, using a score system 2.Quantitative Hazard Assessment
based on the emission of the polluted areas and sub-areas, defining a generic risk value using GIS based pollution transport model. 3.Quantitative Risk assessment
based on catchment scale emission (GIS based transport model) enabling to decide on the adequate risk reduction measures and to calculate future land-use
specific target risk values and from this the maximum permitted emission). 4.Planning risk reduction measures which provide a combination of adequate water
management and treatment practices and physical, chemical and phytostabilisation methods. 5.Laboratory tests in soil microcosms to check the stabilising
effect of chemical additives (flyash, lignite, lime, etc.) 6.Pilot scale lysimeter tests to study the application of the most suitable chemical stabiliser
7. Field experiments on two demonstration sites in two different settings to demonstrate the applicability of the selected, approved technology: a.Gyöngyösoroszi,
Hungary, Toka creek catchment: toxic metal pollution and acidification b. Red mud storage of the Alumina factory in Almásfüzítő, Hungary: high alkalinity
and salt content and dust erosion. Milestones of the project 1. Data collection 2. GIS modelling 3. Technology review 4.Technology monitoring methodology 5. Laboratory experiments 6. Field
experiments 7. Dissemination by publications /education
Achieved Objectives:
1.Complex Environmental Risk Management methodology including tiered and GIS based Environmental Risk Assessment method.    
2.Qualitative Risk Assessment methodology for inventory and relative ranking of the pollution sources.      
3.Quantitative Hazard and Risk Assessment methodology applicable to diffuse pollution of mining or of any other origin using GIS based modelling of pollution 
transport. The methodology supports decision making in the selection of risk reduction measures. The methodology allowed estimation of the metal emission
from the sources and prediction of the end concentration of environmental elements. The risk reduction values were planned and calculated from the estimated
target concetrations. 4. Combined chemical and phytoremediation technology, able to reduce mobility, biological availability of toxic metals, providing long term reduction
of toxic metal emission and transport via any pathway.
Product Descriptions:
Combined chemical and phytoremediation: a stepwise scale-up from 2–5 kg microcosm, through laboratory and open-air pilot lysimeters to the field plots was 
developed. According to the microcosm experiments alkaline fly ashes showed the best results in the immobilisation of toxic metals (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) in soil
on long term (2 years). The addition of 5 w/w% fly ash to the soil decreased the water soluble metal content by 99% and the acetate soluble fraction by 50%. In addition
to the extractability of metals the bioavailability and as a consequence the toxicity also decreased. The combination of 5 w/w% non-alkaline fly ash and 2 w/w%
lime was as effective as the alkaline fly ash, while the non-alkaline fly ashes alone also decreased metal mobility and toxicity, but a bit slower. The lysimeter
results proved the toxicity reducing effect of the fly ashes on soil and drain-water and the advantages of fly-ash application as a reactive barrier. The plot
experiments completely confirmed the results of the microcosm and pilot lysimeter experiments: the toxic metal content and toxicity of the pore water was
reduced, the growth of the vegetation was stimulated, the efficiency of the vegetation in controlling runoff and erosion increased significantly.
Additional Information:

Project Resources:
Funding Programme(s): 
Link to Organisations:
Submitted by: Dr Katalin Gruiz  Who does what?  14/03/2006 13:47:00
Updated by: Dr Katalin Gruiz  Who does what?  15/04/2009 16:15:00