The human effects, which take in environment, affect live (biotic) and inanimate (abiotic) elements.
Each time, when contamination occurs, the environment is damaged. The elimination of contamination
in soil, water, and in the air has to be ensured, but if contamination occurs, the Hungarian regulations
requires the use of the best available technologies (BAT) to cease the contamination, and to prevent
the contamination spreading. In Hungary industrial, agricultural and other activities cause sometimes
contamination pressures to the environment.
Long-lasting environment damage affect human health, and status of environment elements. To explore
the extent of the contamination impact, exploration has to be carried out. Exploration is the first
step of the remediation. To assess the wider impact of the contamination, ecotoxicological examinations
are also recommended to perform so the chemical and biological effect of contamination on organism
and ecosystems can be detected.
It is essential to involve the affected stakeholders in the remediation process. This is also regulated
in the Hungarian 219/2004. (VII.21.) government decree. Certain contamination can have an effect
on human health as well; therefore, local people have to have the right to know the damaging effect,
which might affect them. Community discussion forum is a good way for public consultation. It is very
important that the communication should start between affected parties, and the information provided
to these parties are easy to understand.
The role of public consultation in the environmental resolution was first stated in the 10th principle
of the Rio Declaration, and shortly after, the Aarhusi agreement also highlighted its importance.
Hungary ratified this agreement in 1999 and it came into force in the Hungarian legislation in 2001
(LXXXI. Law). This law ensures that environment information is publicly accessible for everyone
and public consultation is required in administrative decision making. Thereupon after the contaminated
area surveying come the share in activity parties (owner, user, authority, civilian organization)
join in the process.
When the risk assessment of the contaminated site is carried out, this study has to consider human,
ecological, real estate and presumable (potential) receptors. Human receptor can be a person, group
or population. Sensitive sub-groups sometimes necessary to differenciate during the risk assessment
(children, elderly, pregnant woman, etc.). Ecological receptor can be a microbe population, higher
class living organisms (plants, animals), or complete nutrition chain, or the complete ecosystem
of the specific area.