Title: Rapid sample preparation and bioanalytical techniques for efficient screening of organic pollutants in the environment 
Resource Type: document --> technical publication --> Phd thesis 
Country: Sweden 
Year: 2006 
Availability: Författare: Nording, Malin Titel: Rapid sample preparation and bioanalytical techniques for efficient screening of organic pollutants in the environment Institution: Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi URI: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-842 Publikationstyp: Dissertation Langauge: EN Key words: accelerated solvent extraction, CAFLUX, food, immunoassay, PAH, PCDD, PCDF, pressurized liquid extraction, soil, CALUX, cell-based bioassay, chemically activated fluorescent gene expression, chemically activated luciferase gene expression, dioxin, ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, feed 
Author 1/Producer: Nording, Malin 
Author / Producer Type: University research group / research institute 
Publisher: Umeå Universitet 
Publisher City: Umeå University: Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi 
ISBN: ISBN 91-7264-109-6 
Report / download web link (=direct link): http://www.diva-portal.org/umu/theses/abstract.xsql?dbid=842 ...  
Format (e.g. PDF): PDF 
Size: (e.g. 20mb) 0.5 
EUGRIS Keyword(s): Diffuse pollution-->Contaminants-->Persistent Organic Pollutants
Diffuse pollution-->Monitoring
 
Short description: Large numbers of samples often need to be prepared and analysed in surveys of organic pollutants in the environment, but while the methods commonly used in such surveys can provide abundant detail they are generally costly, time-consuming and require large amounts of resources, so there is a need for simpler techniques. The work underlying this thesis assessed the potential utility of more convenient sample preparation and bioanalytical techniques for rapidly screening various environmental matrices that could be useful complements to higher resolution methods. 
Long description: Large numbers of samples often need to be prepared and analysed in surveys of organic pollutants in the environment, but while the methods commonly used in such surveys can provide abundant detail they are generally costly, time-consuming and require large amounts of resources, so there is a need for simpler techniques. The work underlying this thesis assessed the potential utility of more convenient sample preparation and bioanalytical techniques for rapidly screening various environmental matrices that could be useful complements to higher resolution methods. Initially, the utility of a simplified extraction technique followed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in authentic (i.e. unspiked) contaminated soils was explored. The results showed that there are relationships between the structure and cross-reactivity among compounds that often co-occur with target PAHs. However, their potential contribution to deviations between estimates of total PAH contents of soils obtained using ELISA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based reference methods were limited. Instead, the cross-reactivity of target PAHs and the failure to extract all of the PAHs prior to the ELISA determinations were the main reasons for these deviations. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were detected in food and feed matrices, as well as in authentic contaminated soils using different bioanalytical techniques – ELISA and two cell-based bioassays: CAFLUX and CALUX (chemically activated fluorescent/luciferase gene expression) assays. In addition, enhanced sample preparation techniques based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were developed. ASE with integrated carbon fractionation (ASE-C) in combination with CAFLUX produced estimates of PCDD and PCDF contents in fish oil and fish meal that agreed well with results obtained using reference methods. Furthermore, results from ELISA and GC-high resolution MS analyses of extracts of PCDD- and PCDF-contaminated soil samples obtained using an adjusted ASE-C technique were strongly correlated. Finally, the thesis reports the first experiments in which the results of CAFLUX, CALUX, and ELISA determinations of PCDDs and PCDFs in extracts of authentic contaminated soil samples were evaluated and compared to those obtained using a reference method. All of the bioanalytical techniques were found to be sufficiently sensitive, selective, and accurate for use in screening in compliance with soil quality assessment criteria. Overall, the improved sample preparation and bioanalytical techniques examined proved to be useful potential complements to conventional methods, enhancing the analytical framework for PAHs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. However, further validation has to be undertaken before they are applied on a large-scale. 
Link to Project(s): MCN Northern Sweden Soil Remediation Center
 
Submitted By: Mr Thomas Liljedahl WhoDoesWhat?      Last update: 13/10/2006