Title: Effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic invertebrates - the example of carbamazepine and clofibric acid 
Resource Type: document --> technical publication --> book / book chapter(s) 
Country: EU Projects 
Year of publication: 2004 
Availability: Nentwig G, Oetken M, Oehlmann J (2004): Effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic invertebrates - the example of carbamazepine and clofibric acid. In: Kümmerer K (ed.): Pharmaceuticals in the Environment. Sources, Fate, Effects and Risks. 2nd Edition, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 195-207 
Author 1/Producer: Nentwig G 
Other Authors/Producers: Oetken M, Oehlmann J 
Author / Producer Type: EC Project 
Report / download web link (=direct link): http://www.comprendo-project.org/_files/Nentwig%20et%20al%20 ...  
Format (e.g. PDF): PDF 
EUGRIS Keyword(s): Contaminated land-->Contaminants-->Contaminants overview
Short description: Pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are widely distributed in the aquatic environ-ment (Kümpel et al. 2001, Tixier 2003). Concerns about potential ecological effects have been raised because these compounds are usually highly active, with the example of ethinylestradiol and other estrogens demonstrating that such compounds may cause effects already at concentrations between 1 and 10 ng l-1 (Routledge et al. 1998). Though many data about the occurrence have been collected, not much is known in fact about possible impact on aquatic wildlife. Actually, mostly acute tests are used to evaluate the risk of pharmaceuticals for the environment. Effects occurring in these tests are often obtained at non-environmentally relevant concentrations. Potential risks are assessed by calculating with risk factors ranging up to 25,000 (Hanisch et al. 2002). Furthermore, these tests do only account for the aquatic phase. The approach of the present study is to investigate whether exposure via sediment shows any effects of pharmaceuticals which were not revealed by aqueous exposure. Sediments can serve as a sink for xenobiotics that are lipophilic (Prorsi and Müller 1987; Fiedler and Rösler 1993). In the same way, they act as a reservoir from which sediment-bound chemicals can be remobilized when the sediment is churned up (Kram et al. 1989). Their role in binding and releasing of potentially harmful substances in the environment is actually underestimated as most studies focus on water exposure. Especially as pharmaceuticals are mostly complex molecules with several functional groups (see Chap. 2), a negative log POW is not a good measure for the distribution of the compound between water and sediment. For the current approach, to assess the ef-fects of representatives from different classes of pharmaceuticals, carbamazepine and clofibric acid were chosen as test compounds (Fig. 16.1). Carbamazepine is used widely as an antiepileptic agent for newly diagnosed cases of epilepsy and for patients who cannot tolerate their current therapy. It is also used in depression treatment (Kudoh et al. 1998), in opiate and alcohol withdrawal manage-ment (Bertschy et al. 1997; Sternebring et al. 1992). It is prescribed in amounts of about 80 tons per year in Germany (Schwabe and Paffrath 2003). Clofibric acid is the active metabolite of the lipid lowering compounds clofibrate, etofibrate and etofyllinclofibrate (Mutschler 1991). Though the use of these lipid regu-lators decreases, clofibric acid is still detected in the environment (Hanisch et al. 2002). 
Link to Project(s): COMPRENDO Comparative Research on Endocrine Disrupters - Phylogenetic Approach and Common Principles focussing on Androgenic/Antiandrogenic Compounds
Submitted By: Dr Stefan Gödeke WhoDoesWhat?      Last update: 14/02/2006