Title: Variation in Calculated Human Exposure. Comparison of Calculations with Seven European Human Exposure Models 
Resource Type: document --> technical publication --> report 
Country: European Union 
Language(s): Dutch
Year: 2002 
Availability: Variation in Calculated Human Exposure. Comparison of Calculations with Seven European Human Exposure Models. Swartjes, F.A. Published by RIVM in 2002 (Report number 711701030) 
Author 1/Producer: Swartjes, F.A. 
Author / Producer Type: University research group / research institute 
Report / download web link (=direct link): http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/711701030.html  
Format (e.g. PDF): PDF 
EUGRIS Keyword(s): Contaminated land-->Risk assessment-->Models
Contaminated land-->Risk assessment-->Tools and procedures
Short description: Twenty scenarios, differing with respect to land use, soil type and contaminant, formed the basis for calculating human exposure from soil contaminants with the use of models contributed by seven European countries (one model per country). Here, the human exposures to children and children calculated by each of the models are compared. 
Long description: All calculations were performed twice: once with a prescribed set of parameters and once with the default data used in the different countries. Exposure via the three major exposure pathways of soil ingestion, crop consumption and indoor air inhalation was calculated in each case. Relevant concentrations in contact media and the soil compartments were also calculated. Evaluation of variations in the calculated exposure for each major exposure pathway, and factors affecting the variation, have led to the following main conclusions: The variation in calculated exposure is large for exposure via indoor air inhalation, substantial for exposure via crop consumption and limited for exposure via soil ingestion. The variation in calculated exposure is mainly influenced by the choice of exposure model and, to a lesser extent, by the selection of contaminant and type of input parameter (standardised or default). The variation in calculated exposure is scarcely dependent on soil use and even less on soil type. Miscommunication is a source (difficult to avoid) for variation in calculated exposure. Besides the above, characteristics of human exposure models and default values for the input parameters used in different countries have also been overviewed. One recommendation for the long term would be to construct a toolbox for use in the whole or part of Europe that would allow standardised assessment of human exposure, with the possibility of including flexible (country-specific) elements. 
Submitted By: Miss Katy Baker WhoDoesWhat?      Last update: 14/04/2005