Policy and Regulation:- United Kingdom Risk assessment 

1. Policy and Regulation
1.1 Policy
UK policy and guidance on the risk assessment of contaminated land has developed swiftly since 2000, driven by the implementation of new legislation designed 
to address contaminated land, such as Part IIA and changes to the planning and building control systems. This developing policy has been published by various
authoritative bodies in a number of guidance or decision support documents. Much, although not all, of this guidance is contained within the Contaminated Land Research (CLR) series of documents jointly published by Defra and the
Environment Agencey. The basic UK approach and terminology used in all risk assessment of contaminated land in the UK is outlined in CLR11 'Model procedures
for the management of land contamination' (Defra & EA, 2004). This is supplemented by other documents in the CLR series, such as CLR7 'Assessment of risks to
human health from land contamination: An overview of the development of Soil Guideline Values and related research' (Defra & EA, 2002).  
1.2 Regulation
Part IIA of the Evironmenatal Protection Act (1990) and the associated regulations and guidance for England, Scotland and Wales, set out the procedures 
to be followed by local authorities to determine land as 'contaminated land' and enforce its remediation (if neccesary). These procedures are based on risk
assessment. In general, the requirement for risk assessments to be carried out before the development of brownfield sites is regulated by the local authority (often
in conjunction with the Environment Agency). The construction (or significant modification) of buildings within the UK is subject to the approval of the local authority under the Town and Country Planning
Act 1990 or Town and Country Planning Act (Scotland) 1997 and associated regulations and guidance. Contamination is a material consideration under the planning
system. Where contamination may be present, a risk assessment may need to be prepared and agreed by the local authority before planning permission is granted.
This is explained in more detail:
  • for England, in PPS23 - 'Planning Policy Statement 23: Planning and Pollution Control' (ODPM, 2004)
  • for Wales, in Chapter 13 of 'planning Policy Wales (Welsh assembly, 2002)
  • for Scotland, in PAN33 - 'Development of contamianted land' (Scottish Executive, 2000)
  • for Northern Ireland, updated guidance is not yet available. Buildiing is also subject to building control inspection under the The Building Act 1984 or The Buidling (Scotland) Act 2003 and associated regulations
    and guidance. Adequate risk management will be needed based on a suitable risk assessment where containants may be present. The requirements are explained
    in more detail:
  • for England and Wales, in Approved Document C 'Site preparation and resistance to contaminants and moisture' (ODPM, 2004)
  • for Scotland, in Technical Standards Part G 'Preparation of sites, resistance to moisture and resistance to condensation' - updated guidance is not
    yet available
  • for Northern Ireland, in Technical Booklet C 'Preparation of site and resistance to moisture guidance is not yet available - updated guidance is not
    yet available.  
  • 2. Authors

    Further Description
    Selected key documents
    Selected list of key technical terms
    Selected Selected list of abbreviations
    Selected useful weblinks
    R&D Funding Programmes