Further description:-  Contaminants 

Glossary Entry
A wide range of man-made chemicals designed for use in industry, agriculture, pest control, consumer 
goods and emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels are the main contaminant-sources for diffuse
pollution.
Level 1: Diffuse Pollution:

 

Further information:

 

During the last century, large amounts of different chemicals were released to the environment through industrial emission and waste, agricultural practice (including manure and sewage sludge applications) and via wastewater treatment plant effluent discharges. This contamination can have a critical impact in the ecosystem due to their strong activity at low doses.

 

Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs):

According to an inventory of priority compound classes, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been identified to exhibit potentially harmful effects to man and the environment. In addition to being persistent, POPs are typically lipophilic and therefore bioaccumulative, and toxic (pbt: persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic).

 

Emerging pollutants

Actually, a second wave of pollutants, the so-called emerging contaminants are suspicious of causing adverse effects in both humans and wildlife. In addition, intermediates and end-products of the chemical and pharmaceutical (incl. veterinary) industry have to be mentioned. One of the key issues with emerging contaminants is that although few of them have been recently subject to legislation, many potential pollutants are not fully recognised and as a consequence no routine monitoring programmes exists. One of the key issues is the evaluation of risks of such non-regulated chemicals that are currently being detected in the environment.

 

Some of the POPs have been deliberately produced by the industry for a wide variety of applications (e.g. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs)). Others are accidentally formed or eventually released as a byproduct from various activities, such as industrial or combustion processes (i.e., polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Since 1995, the international community was working on legal instruments to eliminate POPs. Different organisations initiated an assessment process, which in December 2000 resulted in the resolution of the POP Convention. Initial action is taken towards twelve POPs: Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Endrin, Heptachlor, Hexachlorobenzene, Mirex, Toxaphene, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs.

 

 

Key publications

 

Papers on organics - diffusive atmospheric inputs and long-term air-soil exchange

 

Jones, K. C., Stratford, J. A., Waterhouse, K. S., Furlong, E. T., Giger, W., Hites, R. A., Schaffner, C. and Johnston, A. E. (1989). Increases in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon content of an agricultural soil over the last century.  Environ. Sci. Technol.  23: 95-101.

Jones, K. C., Grimmer, G., Jacob, J. and Johnston, A. E. (1989). Changes in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content of wheat grain and pasture grassland over the last century from one site in the UK. Sci. Tot. Environ.  78: 117-130.

Kjeller, L-O., Jones, K. C., Johnston, A. E. and Rappe, C. (1991). Increases in the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan (PCDD/F) content of soils and vegetation since the 1840s. Environ. Sci. Technol. 25: 1619-1627.

Jones, K. C., Sanders, G., Wild, S. R., Burnett, V. and Johnston, A. E. (1992).  Evidence for a decline of PCBs and PAHs in rural UK vegetation and air.  Nature 356: 137-140.

Wild, S. R., Jones, K. C. and Johnston, A. E. (1992).  Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in herbage from a long-term grassland experiment.  Atmos. Environ. 26A: 1299-1307.

Alcock, R. E., Johnston, A. E., McGrath, S. P., Berrow, M. L. and Jones, K. C.  (1993).  Long-term changes in the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content of United Kingdom soils. Environ. Sci. Technol.  27: 1918-1923.

Kjeller, L-O, Jones, K. C., Johnston, A. E. and Rappe, C.  (1996). Evidence for a decline in atmospheric emissions of PCDD/Fs in the UK. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 1398-1403.

Meijer, S. N., Halsall, C. J., Harner, T. J., Peters, A. J., Ockenden, W. A., Johnston, A. E. and Jones, K. C. (2001). Organochlorine pesticide residues in archived UK soil. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35: 1989-1995.

Meijer, S. N., Harner, T. J., Helm, P. A., Halsall, C. J., Johnston, A. E. and Jones, K. C. (2001). Polychlorinated naphthalenes in UK soils: time trends, markers of source and equilibrium status. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35: 4205-4213.

 

 

Papers on metals - diffusive atmospheric inputs and long-term air-soil exchange

 

Jones, K. C. and Johnston, A. E. (1989).  Cadmium in cereal grain and herbage from long-term experimental plots at Rothamsted.  Environ. Pollut. 57: 199-216.

Haygarth, P. M., Jones, K. C. and Harrison, A. F. (1991).  Selenium cycling through agricultural grasslands: budgeting the role of the atmosphere. Sci. Total Environ. 103: 89-111.

Jones, K. C. and Johnston, A. E. (1991).  Significance of atmospheric inputs of lead to grassland at one site in the United Kingdom since 1860. Environ. Sci. Technol. 25: 1174-1178.

Jones, K. C., Jackson, A. and Johnston, A. E. (1992).  Evidence for an increase in the cadmium content of herbage since the 1860s.  Environ. Sci. Technol. 26: 834-836.

Haygarth, P. M. and Jones, K. C. (1992).  Atmospheric deposition of metals to agricultural surfaces:  an emphasis on principles and processes with case studies from the UK.  pp. 249-276.  In:  Biogeochemistry of Trace Metals,  D. C. Adriano (Ed.).  Lewis Pub. Co., Chelsea, MI, USA, 513 p.

Johnston, A. E. and Jones, K. C. (1992).  The cadmium issue - long-term changes in the cadmium content of soils and the crops grown on them.  In: Proc. Int. Conf. on Phosphate Fertilisers and the Environment  ed. by J. J. Schultz, pp. 255-270. Int. Fertiliser Development Center, Muscle Shoals, Alabama, USA.

Haygarth, P. M., Harrison, A. F. and Jones, K. C. (1993). Geographical and seasonal variation in deposition of selenium to vegetation.  Environ. Sci. Technol. 27: 2878-2884.

Haygarth, P. M., Cooke, A. I., Jones, K. C., Harrison, A. F. and Johnston, A. E.  (1993).  Long term change in the biogeochemical cycling of atmospheric selenium:  deposition to plants and soil.  J. Geophys. Res. 98: D9, 16,769-16,776.

Nicholson, F. A., Jones, K. C. and Johnston, A. E. (1994).  Effect of phosphate fertilisers and atmospheric deposition on long-term changes in the cadmium content of crops and soils.  Environ. Sci. Technol.   28: 2170-2175.

Haygarth, P. M., Harrison, A. F. and Jones, K. C. (1995).  Plant selenium from soil and the atmosphere. J. Environ. Qual.  24: 768-771.

Bacon, J. R., Jones, K. C., McGrath, S. P. and Johnston, A. E. (1996). Isotopic character of lead deposited from the atmosphere at a grassland site in the United Kingdom since 1860.  Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 2511-2518.

 

 

Papers on levels/processes in background soils

 

Jones, K. C., Stratford, J. A., Tidridge, P., Waterhouse, K. S. and Johnston, A. E. (1989).  Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in an agricultural soil: long-term changes in profile distribution.  Environ. Pollut.  56: 337-351.

Jones, K. C., Stratford, J. A., Waterhouse, K. S. and Vogt, N. B. (1989).  Organic compounds in Welsh soils: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.  Environ. Sci. Technol.  23: 540-550.

Wild, S. R. and Jones, K. C. (1995).  Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the United Kingdom environment:  a preliminary source inventory and budget. Environ. Pollut. 88: 91-108.

Duarte-Davidson, R, Sewart, A. P., Alcock, R. E., Cousins, I. and Jones, K. C.  (1997).  Exploring the balance between sources, deposition and the environmental burden of PCDD/Fs in the UK terrestrial environment: an aid to identifying uncertainties and research needs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 31: 1-11.

Cousins, I. T. and Jones, K. C. (1998). Air-soil exchange of SOCs in the UK. Environ. Pollut. 102:  105-118.

Cousins, I. T., Beck, A. J. and Jones, K. C. (1999).  A review of the processes involved in the exchange of SOCs across the air-soil interface. Sci. Total Environ. 228: 5-24.

Cousins, I. T., Gevao, B. and Jones, K. C. (1999). Measuring and modelling the vertical distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds in soils: I. PCB and PAH soil core data. Chemosphere 39: 2507-2518.

Cousins, I. T., Mackay, D. and Jones, K. C. (1999). Measuring and modelling the vertical distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds in soils: II. model development. Chemosphere 39: 2519-2534.

Smith, K. E. C. and Jones, K. C. (2000). Particles and vegetation: implications for the transfer of particle-bound organic contaminants to plants.  Sci. Total Environ. 246: 207-236.

Howsam, M., Jones, K. C. and Ineson, P. (2001). Dynamics of PAH deposition, cycling and storage in a mixed-deciduous (Quercus-Fraxinus) woodland ecosystem. Environ. Pollut. 113: 163-176.

Hung, H., Thomas, G. O., Jones, K. C. and Mackay, D. (2001). Grass-air exchange of PCBs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 35: 4066-4073.

Meijer, S. N., Steinnes, E., Ockenden, W. A. and Jones, K. C. (2002).  The influence of environmental and soil-related variables on the spatial distribution of PCBs in Norwegian and UK soils: implications for global cycling. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36: 2146-2153.

Meijer, S. N., Ockenden, W. A., Sweetman, A. J., Breivik, K., Grimalt, J. O. and Jones, K. C. (2003). Global distribution and budget of PCBs and HCB in background surface soils: implications for sources and environmental processes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37: 667-672.

Meijer, S. N., Shoeib, M., Jones, K. C. Harner, T. (2003). Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils. 1. Field measurements using a novel in situ sampling device. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37: 1292-1299.

Meijer, S. N., Shoeib, M., Jones, K. C. Harner, T. (2003). Air-soil exchange of organochlorine pesticides in agricultural soils. 2. Laboratory measurements of the soil/air partition coefficient (Ksa). Environ. Sci. Technol. 37: 1300-1305.

Green, N. J. L., Hassanin, A., Johnston, A. E. and Jones, K. C. (2004). Observations on historical, contemporary and natural PCDD/Fs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 715-723.

Hassanin, A., Breivik, K., Meijer, S. N., Steinnes, E., Thomas, G. O. and Jones, K. C. (2004). PBDEs in European background soils: levels and factors controlling their distribution. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 738-745.

 

 

Papers related atmospheric sources

 

Lee, R. G. M., Green, N. J. L., Lohmann, R. and Jones, K. C. (1999). Seasonal, anthropogenic, air mass and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of PCDD/Fs: evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources.  Environ. Sci. Technol. 33: 2864-2871.

Sweetman, A. J. and Jones, K. C. (2000). Declining PCB concentrations in the UK atmosphere: evidence and possible causes.  Environ. Sci. Technol. 34: 863-869.

Lohmann, R., Northcott, G. L. and Jones, K. C. (2000).  Assessing the significance of domestic burning to the atmospheric concentrations of PCDD/Fs, co-planar PCBs and PAHs. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34: 2892-2899.

Breivik, K., Sweetman, A., Pacyna, J. M. and Jones, K. C. (2002). Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners – a mass balance approach. I. Global production and consumption. Sci. Total Environ. 290: 181-198.

Breivik, K., Sweetman, A., Pacyna, J. M. and Jones, K. C. (2002). Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners – a mass balance approach. II. Emissions. Sci. Total Environ. 290: 199-224.

Prevedouros, K., Brorstrom-Lunden, E., Halsall, C. J., Jones, K. C., Lee, R. G. M. and Sweetman, A. J. (2004). Seasonal and long-term trends in atmospheric PAH concentrations: evidence and implications. Environ. Pollut. 128: 17-27.

Jaward, F. M., Farrar, N. J., Harner, T., Sweetman, A. J. and Jones, K. C. (2004). Passive air sampling of PCBs, PBDEs and organochlorine pesticides across Europe. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 34-41.

Lee, R. G. M., Thomas, G. O and Jones, K. C. (2004). PBDEs in the atmosphere of western Europe. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 699-706.

Farrar, N. J., Smith, K. E. C., Lee, R. G. M., Thomas, G. O., Sweetman, A. J. and Jones, K. C. (2004). Atmospheric emissions of PBDEs and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during a major anthropogenic combustion event. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 1681-1685.

Jaward, F. M., Meijer, S. M., Steinnes, E., Thomas, G. O. and Jones, K. C. (2004). Further studies on the latitudinal and temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in Norwegian and UK background air. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38: 2523-2530.

Jaward, F. M., Farrar, N., Harner, T., Sweetman, A. and Jones, K. C. (2004). Passive air sampling of PAHs and PCNs across Europe. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23:

Prevedouros, K., Jones, K. C. and Sweetman, A. J. Estimation of production, consumption and emissions of pentabrominated diphenyl ether (PeBDE) in Europe: 1970-2000. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38:

 

 

Papers on modelling

 

Harner, T., Mackay, D. and Jones, K. C. (1995).  Model of the long-term exchange of PCBs between soil and the atmosphere in the southern UK. Environ. Sci. Technol.   29: 1200-1209.

Harner, T., Green, N. and Jones, K. C. (2000). Measurements of octanol:air partition coefficients for PCDD/Fs: a tool in assessing air-soil equilibrium status. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34: 3109-3114.

Sweetman, A. J., Cousins, I. T., Seth, R., Jones, K. C. and Mackay, D. (2002).  A dynamic Level IV multi-media environmental model: application to the fate of PCBs in the United Kingdom over a 60-year period.  Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 21: 930-940.

Dalla Valle, M., Jurado, E., Dachs, J. and Jones, K. C. The maximum reservoir capacity of global surface soils for persistent organic pollutants: implications for global cycling. Environ. Sci. Technol.

 

 

Papers on sewage sludge amended soils/organic manures

 

Wild, S. R., Waterhouse, K. S., McGrath, S. P. and Jones, K. C. (1990). Organic contaminants in an agricultural soil with a known history of sewage sludge amendments: polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons.  Environ. Sci. Technol. 24: 1706-1711.

Wild, S. R., Obbard, J. P., Munn, C., Berrow, M. and Jones, K. C. (1991).  The long-term persistence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an agricultural soil amended with metal contaminated sewage sludges.  Sci. Total Environ. 101: 235-253.

Wild, S. R., Berrow, M. and Jones, K. C.  (1991).  The persistence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge-amended agricultural soils.  Environ. Pollut.  72: 141-157.

Wild, S. R., Berrow, M. L., McGrath, S. P. and Jones, K. C.  (1992). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in crops from long-term sewage sludge amended field experiments.  Environ. Pollut. 76: 25-32.

Wild, S. R. and Jones, K. C. (1992).  Organic chemicals entering agricultural soils in sewage sludges:  screening for their potential to transfer to crop plants and livestock.  Sci. Total Environ. 119: 85-119.

Wild, S. R., Harrad, S. J. and Jones, K. C. (1994).  The influence of sewage sludge application to agricultural land on human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans.  Environ. Pollut.  83: 357-369.

Wang, M., McGrath, S. P. and Jones, K. C. (1995).  Chlorobenzenes in field soil with a history of multiple sewage sludge applications.  Environ. Sci. Technol. 29: 356-362.

Alcock, R. E., McGrath, S. P. and Jones, K. C. (1995).  The influence of multiple sewage sludge amendments on the PCB content of an agricultural soil over time.  Environ. Toxicol. Chem.  14: 553-560.

McLachlan, M. S., Sewart, A. P., Bacon, J. R. and Jones, K. C. (1996). Persistence of PCDD/Fs in sludge-amended soil.  Environ. Sci. Technol. 30: 2567-2571.

Alcock, R. E., Beck, A. J., Bacon, J., Parker, C. A. and Jones, K. C. (1996).  The persistence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge amended agricultural soils. Environ. Pollut. 93: 83-92.

Jones, K. C. and Sewart, A. P. (1997).  Dioxins and furans in sewage sludges:  a review of their occurrence and possible sources in sludge and of their environmental fate, behaviour and significance in sludge-amended agricultural systems. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 27: 1-86.

Wilson, S. C., Alcock, R. E., Sewart, A. P. and Jones, K. C. (1997). Persistence of organic contaminants in soils from a sewage sludge amended field experiment. J. Environ. Qual. 26: 1467-1477.

Stevens, J. L., Northcott, G. L., Stern, G. A., Tomy, G. and Jones, K. C. (2003). PAHs, PCBs, PCNs, organochlorine pesticides, synthetic musks and polychlorinated n-alkanes in UK sewage sludge: survey results and implications. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37: 462-467.

Stevens, J. L. and Jones, K. C. (2003). Quantification of PCDD/F concentrations in animal manure and comparison of the effects of cattle manure and sewage sludge to agricultural land on human exposure to PCDD/Fs. Chemosphere, 50, 1183-1191.

 

 

Policy and regulations

 

Stockholm convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)

The Stockholm Convention is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs). POPs are chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long periods, become widely distributed geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms and are toxic to humans and wildlife. POPs circulate globally and can cause damage wherever they travel. In implementing the Convention, Governments will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment.

(http://www.pops.int/)

 

 

Decision support / management tools

 

 

 

Country information / Library

 

 

Authors:

D. Barcelo, P. Grathwohl, D. Halm, K. Jones, K.-U. Totsche

(http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/sowa)

 

 

Who does what?

SOWA – Integrated Soil and water Protection: Risks from diffuse pollution

(http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/sowa)

 

 

 

 

SOWA Working Group “Inventory: “Identification of priority compound classes”

Lead: Damiá Barcelò (dbcqam@cid.csic.es)

The most relevant organic compounds such as persistent organic pollutants POPs, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are inventored, presented in workshops, and discussed. The relevance of emerging and new compounds and their impact on soil, water, and ecosystems are adressed and as a main future task, thze following future research needs are identified:

·        the urgent need of a European list of emerging contaminants,

·        the interaction of chemicals between soil and water as a key issue

·        the lack of studies to assess the functioning of the water/soil system.

 

Authors
No Author information available