Further description:-  Monitoring 

Glossary Entry
Periodic or continuous surveillance or testing to determine the level of compliance with statutory 
requirements and/or pollutant levels in groundwater, water, soils or fauna and flora.
Level 1: Diffuse Pollution:

 

Further information:

 

The multi-functionality of soil requires more integrated approaches involving issues such as spatial planning, critical loads, and ecosystem analysis. The tools of spatial analysis as well as geo-referenced data such as high-resolution soil maps and digital evaluation models should be used. The utility of remote sensing data needs to be explored. Remote-sensing technology could be useful in assessing the actual state of land degradation or the amount of selected surface at a suitable territorial level – information which is still missing and which is difficult to obtain with traditional monitoring techniques.

The spatial variability of soils as well as the variability of soil contamination is very high. Therefore, a relatively dense measurement network is needed. If fast, simple, and cost-effective geophysical methods are used for the measurements of topsoil susceptibility and for a pre-screening, then a relative dense monitoring network can be applied in combination with a reduction of the number of samples and chemical analysis.

 

The following research needs can be identified:

·        Unification of measurement techniques and integration of various approaches adopted by individual countries to enable comparisons

·        Applying the predictive analysis for future risk assessment on a European level

·        Studying prolonged effects of toxic substances on different soil ecosystems and the risk of a sudden or slow loss of the buffer capacity of soils due to the accumulation of heavy metals, organic compounds, and other pollutants (“ecological time bombs”)

·        Definition of a preliminary list of mandatory parameters and indicators chosen for diffuse contamination.

·        Developing and applying techniques for monitoring radio-nuclides and soil solution chemistry

·        Developing the fast and cost-effective on-site screening and monitoring techniques which will serve as an early warning system

·        Undertake the intra-site geo-statistical data processing, especially for some easy detectable key soil parameters (e.g. particle sise distribution, CEC, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, magnetic susceptibility) that could result in an improvement of the sampling design to detect actual changes within the soil as opposed to spatial variation (to make monitoring more sensitive to early changes)

 

 

Key publications

 

 

Policy and regulations

Presently, there is no common European system for soil monitoring. In consequence there is large diversity of existing national and regional monitoring systems. This results in a diversity of monitoring organisation schemes, range of parameters determined, frequency of sampling, and methods of analysis. In such systems, the transfer of data often is a problem. As a result of the diversity, there is a lack of harmonisation of the data derived from many national soil monitoring systems and there is no pan-European quality control of existing soil monitoring networks. Furthermore, in many countries two different systems for agricultural and forest soils exist. Some progress was achieved in monitoring of forest soils. Statutory soil monitoring is actually carried out in a number of EEA member countries (Tab. 4) but it is rarely suitable for the purposes of soil protection.

 

The Water Frame Directive and the Soil Thematic Strategy determine the most urgent needs for assessing and monitoring quality and quality changes of the water-soil-sediment-air system. As many as possible environmental compounds have to be tested and monitored. The list of pollutants is still increasing. Taking into consideration both, economical costs of quality and sensitivity development with increasing demand for their quantity, then it is necessary to apply relatively inexpensive field techniques for environmental site assessment and pollution detection. The innovative techniques could be considered in 4 groups according to their place in stepwise procedure for screening, monitoring, and testing:

·        Remote sensing for large scale overview and monitoring changes

·        Proxy methods for regional scale overview and selection of sampling points

·        On site sensors for fast estimation of pollution (quality and quantity)

·         Sampling and analysis for individual pollutants

 

The following tables 1-3 give an overview over standardised sampling guidances and analytical methods for organic and inorganic compounds.

 

Table 1: Overview over standardised sampling guidances

number

title

state

ISO 10381

Soil Quality: Sampling

 

BS ISO 10381-1: 2002: Part 1

Guidance on the design of sampling programs

working document

BS ISO 10381-2: 2002: Part 2

Guidance on sampling techniques

working document

BS ISO 10381-3: 2001: Part 3

Guidance on safety

working document

ISO FDIS 10381-4: Part 4

Guidance on the procedure for investigation of natural, nearly natural and cultivated sites

final draft international standard

ISO DIS 10381-5: Part 5

Guidance on the investigation of soil contamination of urban and industrial sites

draft international standard

ISO 10381-6: 1993: Part 6

Guidance on the collection, handling and storage of soil for the assessment of aerobic microbial processes in the laboratory

standard

ISO CD 10381-7.2: Part 7

Sampling of soil gas

committee draft

ISO WD 10381-8: Part 8

Guidance on the sampling of stockpiles

working draft

ISO WD 15185

Soil Quality: Sampling: Specification of soil augering/drilling apparatus

working draft

ISO WD 15185

Soil quality -- Extraction of trace elements soluble in aqua regia

working draft

 

 

 

Table 2: Overview over analytical methods (organic compounds)

number

title

state

ISO 10382:2002

Soil quality - Determination of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls - Gas-chromatographic method with electron capture detection

draft

ISO/TR 11046:1994

Soil quality - Determination of mineral oil content -- Method by infrared spectrometry and gas chromatographic method

standard

ISO 3877:1998

Soil quality - Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons -- Method using high -performance liquid chromatography

standard

ISO 15009:2002

Soil quality - Gas chromatographic determination of the content of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene and volatile halogenated hydrocarbons -- Purge-and-trap method with thermal desorption

working document

ISO CD 14154

Determination of phenols and chlorophenols

committee draft

BS ISO 14507: 2002

Pretreatment of samples for determination of organic contaminants

working document

ISO CD 18287

Determination of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH): Gas chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection

committee draft

 

 


Table 3: Overview over analytical methods (inganic compounds)

number

title

state

ISO 11047:1998

Soil quality - Determination of cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc -- Flame and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometric methods

standard

ISO 11048:1995

Soil quality - Determination of water-soluble and acid-soluble sulphate

standard

ISO 15178:2000

Soil quality - Determination of total sulphur by dry combustion

standard

ISO 14869-1: 2001

Determination of total trace element content: Part 1: Digestion with hydrofluoric and perchloric acids

under publication

BS ISO 14869-2: 2002

Dissolution for the determination of total element content: Part 2: Dissolution by alkaline fusion. 

working document

ISO 14870: 2000

Extraction of trace elements by buffered DTPA solution

working document

ISO DIS 16772

Determination of mercury in aqua regia soil extracts

draft international standard

ISO DIS 20279

Determination of thallium: Method by extraction and determination by electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry

draft international standard

ISO AWI 20280

Determination of arsenic, antimony and selenium: Method by extraction in aqua regia and atomic absorption spectrometry

approved work

ISO DIS 11262

Determination of cyanide

draft international standard

ISO WD 17380

Photometric determination of total cyanide and free cyanide content: Method by continuous flow analysis

working draft

ISO NP 11264

Determination of herbicides: Method using HPLC with UV detection

new proposal

 

           

Decision support / management tools

 

 

Country information / Library

Many European states, e.g. Germany, Austria, the Netherlands and Switzerland, have established soil and groundwater monitoring programmes. These programmes vary considerably with respect to their strategy, the monitored parameters, the employed sampling and analytical methods, the design and density of the sampling grid and the intervals between surveys. In general, only a few trace metals and macro-nutrients are monitored, and usually only total concentrations and no bioavailable or mobile fractions are determined.

These programmes give a good overview of the overall situation with respect to the pollutants under survey, but the spatial sampling densities of the networks are not sufficient to allow mapping. Maps are, however, needed in order to adequately account for the distribution of contamination in the management of the land. The required spatial resolution depends on the intended use of that information. In mapping soil and groundwater pollution the problem is to extrapolate or predict the pollution in the areas between the points at which it has actually been measured. The accuracy of the prediction depends on the design of the sampling grid, in particular the density of the sampled points, the spatial structure of the variability and the availability of additional information with indicator value for the state of pollution. Land use data are particularly valuable for this purpose in groundwater as well as soil pollution surveying. In addition, the following proxy methods have been proposed to improve soil pollution mapping: geomagnetics, biosensors, remote sensing and historical information on land use (e.g. application of copper sulfate in vineyards, reclamation of former industrial areas, waste disposal sites). Geostatistics provides methods to make optimum use of the available data.

 

Table 4: Summary of soil monitoring state in EEA countries based on EEA Technical Report 61

 

EU monitoring activities

National soil monitoring activities

EEA countries

Monitoring as part of ICP forests?ICP_IM network

National soil monitoring network present?

general soil properties (e.g. org., C, pH)

soil nutrients (P, Mg, K) & nitrate

soil  (and/or water chemistry)

microbiology & soil fauna

deposition of air pollutants

radionuclides

heavy metals/trace elements

organo chemicals / pesticides

Austria

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

Belgium

·

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Denmark

·

·

·

·

 

 

·

 

·

 

Finland

·

·

·

·

 

 

·

 

·

 

France

·

·

·

·

 

·

 

·

 

 

Germany

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

Greece

·

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ireland

·

·1)

·

·

 

 

 

 

·

 

Italy

·

·

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Luxembourg

·

·

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liechtenstein

 

 

·

·

 

·

 

 

·

·

Netherlands

·

 

·

 

 

 

 

 

·

·

Norway

·

 

·

·

 

 

 

 

·

·

Portugal

·

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spain

·

·

·

 

·

 

 

 

 

 

Sweden

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

·

UK

·

·

·

·

 

 

 

 

·

 

Non EEA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Switzerland

·

·

·

·

 

 

 

 

·

 

Poland

·

·

·

·

 

 

·

 

 

 

           

 

Authors:

T. Magiera, D. Barcelo, M. Czaplicka, P. Grathwohl, D. Halm, E. Appel, V. Hoffmann, W. Roesler

(http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/sowa)

 

 

Who does what?

SOWA – Integrated Soil and water Protection: Risks from diffuse pollution

(http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/sowa)

 

 

 

 

SOWA Working Group “Screening and Monitoring Tools at Different Scales”

Lead: Tadeusz Magiera (magiera@ipis.zabrze.pl)

 

The actual state-of-the-art in screening and monitoring tools at different scales are described and the most important research gaps and needs are identified for the following areas:

·        European soil monitoring and screening systems

·        Sampling and sample preparation procedures

·        Detection of organic and inorganic pollutants.

 

Cost-effective, innovative methods and techniques are identified such as the magnetic proxy method for fast screening and mapping of large areas.

 

 

Authors
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