Further description:- United Kingdom  Wider impacts / sustainability 

Glossary Entry:- United Kingdom  Wider impacts / sustainability
“Wider Effects” as a term is not defined in the UK, although the need to achieve sustainable development 
in contaminated land management is accepted in policy and regulation.
Overview
The 'Model Procedures for the Management of Land Contamination', published by the Environment Agency 
of England and Wales set out good practice, and can be used across the UK. The wider benefits of remediation
projects, and the sustainability of any solutions employed, should be explicitly considered in
decision making for contaminated land management. A number of regulatory and planning controls
relate to emissions, and wastes generated by remediation, and the planning system can also consider
wider impacts such as noise and visual intrusiveness. Cost benefit analysis is seen as an important
aid to decision-making and comprehensive stake-holder engagement is encouraged.
1. General Approach
The Model Procedures recommend that for options appraisal for selecting remediation (risk management 
approaches), each relevant pollutant linkage is considered on an individual basis in the first instance,
and the most appropriate remediation option (on a Best Available Technique or BAT basis) is identified
using a set of formal evaluation criteria. Options appraisal should ensure that: • Stakeholder views are identified and considered in a balanced and transparent way; • The full range of legal, commercial and technical issues that will have a bearing on remediation
are well known in advance of implementation; • An objective assessment is carried out of the advantages, limitations and costs of different
remediation options. The Model Procedures are recommendations only, and have been developed by the Environment Agency
(which operates in England and Wales) and Defra. However, its guidance is also likely to be seen as
good practice in Scotland and Northern Ireland as well. One way to proceed is to specify at the outset of options appraisal a series of objectives that the
remediation strategy has to achieve to be considered acceptable to all those involved. These will
include criteria such as the degree to which risks need to be reduced or controlled; and the time within
which the remediation strategy is required to take effect; the cost of the strategy, embracing the
views of the different stakeholders for a particular site.
 
2. Policy and Regulation
2.1 Policy
Contaminated land presents a number of threats to sustainable development as;   
•	It impedes social progress, depriving local people of a clean and healthy environment;   
•	It threatens wider damage to the environment and to wildlife;   
•	It inhibits the prudent use of land and soil resources, particularly by obstructing the recycling 
of previously developed land and increasing development pressures on greenfield areas; and • The cost of remediation represents a high burden on individual companies, home- and other land
owners, and the economy as a whole. In this context, the Government’s objectives with respect to land contamination are to: • Identify and remove unacceptable risks to human health and the environment; • Seek to bring damaged land back into beneficial use; and • Seek to ensure that the cost burdens faced by individuals, companies and society as a whole are
proportionate, manageable and economically sustainable. • These three objectives underlie the “suitable for use” approach when remediating contaminated
land, which the Government considers is the most appropriate approach to achieving sustainable
development in this field. However, remediation activities cannot be assumed to be sustainable development just by virtue
of the fact that they might return land to use or provide a means of managing any identified risks. Responses
to environmental damage, such as land remediation, must be proportionate, for example in terms of
their cost and their impact on the community, the economy and the wider environment. Achieving sustainable
development when remediating contaminated sites depends upon a host of environmental, social and
economic factors at local and regional levels The environmental burdens of remediation activities should be proportionate, manageable and
environmentally sustainable. Different routes to the removal or reduction of the risks and re-use
of damaged land might vary in their wider effects on the environment. A balanced approach is necessary
that considers social and economic as well as environmental impacts.
 
2.2 Regulation
The environmental impacts of remediation processes are governed by   
•	Process / site licensing (England -  Waste Management Licensing Regulations)– Responsible 
authorities are: Environment Agency (England and Wales), Scottish Environmental Protection Agency
(SEPA) and the Environment and Heritage Service (EHS) in Northern Ireland which will control process
emissions and wastes and their management. Disposal to landfill or incineration is regulated by
the Pollution Prevention and Control Regime • Planning constraints – set by local authorities, which may be wide ranging in their scope, for
example limiting noise, hours of working, waste management, and visual impacts • Health and Safety Legislation. There are no specific regulations enforcing the control of economic or social effects. However,
costs of remediation are expected to be proportionate under Part IIA (it's in the regs, Government
Circular 02/2000 Environmental Protection Act 1990: Part IIA Contaminated Land) to its expected
benefits. Good practice guidance promotes the use of cost benefit analysis and the adoption of stakeholder
consultation in decision making. One of the key methods of promoting sustainable development is through the Planning Process. In
the UK new development or a significant change of the use of the land generally requires Planning Permission.
Land contamination (or the potential for it) is a material planning consideration. This means the
planning authority has to take account of it when making decisions and granting planning permissions
(see PPG23 - Planning and Pollution Control, note this will be superceded very soon by PPS23 - see http://www.odpm.gov.uk
for details). Planning Authorities are required to produce local plans for their area. These will identify preferred
redevelopment land which may include sites requiring some form of remediation. By identifying such
area, the local authority can match future land use to the level of risk posed by an area of contamination.
A sustainable solution may be to limit the re-use of contaminated land to an activity that is less sensitive
to the contamination, therefore requiring less remediation, freeing resources for more sensitive
sites and limiting wider impacts of remediation such as fugitive releases of VOC's or the use of valuable
void space in landfill. The Model Procedures for the Management of Land Contamination, published by the Environment Agency
of England and Wales set out good practice, and can be used across the UK. The Model Procedures suggest
that remediation may have wider benefits, such as enhancing the amenity or ecological value of an
area or contributing towards improved economic activity by removing blight or encouraging regeneration.
The Model Procedures also require that the sustainability of a remediation / risk management strategy
is considered (i.e., how well it meets other environmental objectives, for example on the use of energy
and other material resources, and avoids or minimises adverse environmental impacts in off-site
locations, such as a landfill, or on other environmental compartments, such as air and water). Hence, from the point of view of the three elements of sustainable development, economic, environmental
and social can be considered by: • Looking at the wider environmental effects of a remediation project (Environment Agency Report
P238) • Cost benefit appraisal • Comprehensive stakeholder consultation.
 
3. Funding
Site Project Funding


 
        
R&D funding
Soil Protection
Research Type: Applied

Topics: Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, Remediation options, Remediation options overview Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview Soil, Soil Overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

Full Details |


Soil Biodiversity Programme
Research Type: Basic

Topics: Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Soil, Soil Overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

Full Details |


URGENT (Urban Regeneration and the Environment)
Research Type: Basic

Topics: Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview Soil, Soil Overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

Full Details |


'Infrastructure and Environment' programme and 'Engineering' programme
Research Type: Basic

Topics: Engineering, Infrastructure and Environment, Brownfields, Contaminated land, Groundwater protection, Funding, Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

Full Details |


Bioremediation LINK Programme
Research Type: Applied, Basic

Topics: (1) To understand and exploit natural attenuation in groundwater and soil (demonstration, modelling, prediction, definition of operating window). (2) To improve engineered in-situ bioremediation, interfacing microbiology with engineering and hydrogeology; dealing with heterogeneity, improved process control and optimisation. (3) To translate the results of laboratory studies into the field (scale-up). (4) To position bioremediation within a risk management framework - bioavailability, risk-based end points and residue behaviour. (5) To develop the ability to monitor in-situ microbial processes. (6) To understand the constraints on in-situ microbial processes. (7) To integrate bioremediation with other technologies. (8) To quantify human health impacts of bioremediation and develop surrogate testing. (9) To address socio-economic issues- perception of bioremediation technologies and decision-support mechanisms.

Submitted by: Professor Paul Bardos  Who does what?

Full Details |


Land Contamination
Research Type: Applied

Topics: site assessment for land contamination, decision support tools for risk management, remediation of contaminated soils, sediments, and groundwater, Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

Full Details |


Defra Web Page on: Contaminated Land - funding
Research Type: Demonstration

Topics: There are several measures which support the clean up of contaminated land, and these are described on this web page

Submitted by: Professor Paul Bardos  Who does what?

Full Details |



Market Information


 
    
4: Management tools / decision support and guidance

No further information available

5. Authors


 
    
6. Acknowledgements