Further description:- United Kingdom  Remediation options 

Glossary Entry:- United Kingdom  Remediation options
All risk management options that are available and applicable to break a pollutant linkage at a site 
and hence mitigate harm to a receptor or receptors.
Overview
In the context of the Model Procedures for the Management of Land Contamination (CLR11) Remediation 
Options should be identified for each relevant pollutant linkage identified at a site. i.e. those
pollutant linkages that have been identified through the process of risk assessment to be causing
or having the potential to cause harm. A range of process based remediation technologies for treating contaminated soils are currently
available in England and Wales which, in many instances may fulfil the pre-treatment requirements
of the Landfill Regulations and in most cases enable re-use of treated soils on site. The commercial
availability of these technologies varies considerably and may require expansion in order to ensure
that sufficient capacity is available to match the anticipated demand for pre-treatment of contaminated
soils as a result of the Landfill Directive.
1. General Approach
Once it has been determined that unacceptable risks to a receptor exist at a site then the next stage 
of the model procedures is known as Options Appraisal. The purpose of Options Appraisal is to determine which remedial option (or group of options) are
appropriate to break pollutant linkages at a site and hence manage risk. In practice there may be a
number of ways to reduce or control anacceptable risks, all of which have advantages and limitations
in any particular case. The role of options appraisal is to establish, taking all circumstances of
a site into account, which options (either singly or in combination) offer the best overall approach
to remediation for the site as a whole. The three stages of options appraisal are: 1) Identifying feasible remediation options for each relevanrt pollutnat linkage; 2) Carrying out a detailed evaluation of feasible remediation options to identify the most appropriate
option for any particular linkage; 3) Producing a remediation strategy that addresses all relevant pollution linkages, where appropriate
by combining remediation options.
 
2. Policy and Regulation
2.1 Policy
Relevant to remediation options is the policy that land should be suitable for use; either the existing 
use under the Contaminated Land Regulations, or the new use under Development Control (Planning).
Therefore the remediation option or options used at a site should achieve site specific criteria
to comply with this policy. It should also seek to prevent or mitigate pollution of controlled waters.
 
2.2 Regulation
Contaminated soils and waters are a controlled waste and must be treated or disposed of in accordance 
with national legislation. See http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/subjects/landquality/11
In England there is anticipated to be a change to the regulation of remediation options by the extension
and modification of the Mobile Plant Licensing system to be phased in from October 2005. Details of this can be found at: http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/commondata/acrobat/181_
 
3. Funding
Site Project Funding
Not Applicable 
 
R&D funding
Soil Protection
Research Type: Applied

Topics: Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, Remediation options, Remediation options overview Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview Soil, Soil Overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

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Soil Biodiversity Programme
Research Type: Basic

Topics: Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Soil, Soil Overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

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URGENT (Urban Regeneration and the Environment)
Research Type: Basic

Topics: Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview Soil, Soil Overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

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'Infrastructure and Environment' programme and 'Engineering' programme
Research Type: Basic

Topics: Engineering, Infrastructure and Environment, Brownfields, Contaminated land, Groundwater protection, Funding, Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

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Bioremediation LINK Programme
Research Type: Applied, Basic

Topics: (1) To understand and exploit natural attenuation in groundwater and soil (demonstration, modelling, prediction, definition of operating window). (2) To improve engineered in-situ bioremediation, interfacing microbiology with engineering and hydrogeology; dealing with heterogeneity, improved process control and optimisation. (3) To translate the results of laboratory studies into the field (scale-up). (4) To position bioremediation within a risk management framework - bioavailability, risk-based end points and residue behaviour. (5) To develop the ability to monitor in-situ microbial processes. (6) To understand the constraints on in-situ microbial processes. (7) To integrate bioremediation with other technologies. (8) To quantify human health impacts of bioremediation and develop surrogate testing. (9) To address socio-economic issues- perception of bioremediation technologies and decision-support mechanisms.

Submitted by: Professor Paul Bardos  Who does what?

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Land Contamination
Research Type: Applied

Topics: site assessment for land contamination, decision support tools for risk management, remediation of contaminated soils, sediments, and groundwater, Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

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Defra Web Page on: Contaminated Land - funding
Research Type: Demonstration

Topics: There are several measures which support the clean up of contaminated land, and these are described on this web page

Submitted by: Professor Paul Bardos  Who does what?

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Market Information
The investigation and remediation of land contamination is estimated to be a market worth around 
1 Billion Pounds in the UK (2003/04)
 
4: Management tools / decision support and guidance

No further information available

5. Authors


 
    
6. Acknowledgements