Further description:- United Kingdom  Information management systems 

Glossary Entry:- United Kingdom  Information management systems
A computer program (consisting of data storage systems, software and services, providing automated 
networked storage solutions ) that lets one or more computer users create and access data in a database.
Overview
Many government and private organisations have developed or are developing site specific data management 
and display systems for decision support. Through the visualisation and graphical representation
of data these systems can enable a more thorough conceptual understanding of the site and the risks
involved than is possible from the written report. Systems are able to hold, display, and manipulate diverse data to provide information such as:
i. geology and hydrogeology; ii. topography; iii. the location, nature and extent of contaminant sources, plumes and receptors; iv. site specific soil and groundwater chemistry both within and outside a plume; v. potential contaminant pathways to receptor(s) of concern.
1. General Approach
Many government and private organisations have developed or are developing site specific data management 
and display systems for decision support. Through the visualisation and graphical representation
of data these systems can enable a more thorough conceptual understanding of the site and the risks
involved than is possible from the written report. Systems are able to hold, display, and manipulate diverse data to provide information such as:
i. geology and hydrogeology; ii. topography; iii. the location, nature and extent of contaminant sources, plumes and receptors; iv. site specific soil and groundwater chemistry both within and outside a plume; v. potential contaminant pathways to receptor(s) of concern. The terms data and information are frequently used interchangeably. However for the purpose of
a discussion of data management systems (which may also be termed information management systems),
stricter definitions will apply. Data can be defined as values, measurements or observations taken at a particular place and moment
in time. In addition, data can vary over time. Information is the result of an integration of data into
meaningful entities, a process which may involve evaluation or interpretation. The objective of implementing any data management system is to improve the quality and accessibility
of data held within an organisation or for a particular project. In the environmental context this
adds value to data collected over time, improving data quality and enabling base data, trends and
metadata to be viewed and analysed quickly and easily. Data can be used to represent a wide range of site conditions. In the context of land contamination
and groundwater assessment, key data may be qualified by other details. For example, data such as
a borehole location has a spatial context and therefore could be represented on a plan or map of the
area. This data is termed spatial data. Where sample location includes a depth then the spatial element
may be represented in three dimensions to include the horizontal (x,y) and for 3D representation,
the vertical (z) coordinates. Spatial data is available in two distinct forms, as raster and vector data. In the Vector Data (model)
each discrete spatial entity is described by one or a series of objects. These may be points, lines
and polygons at x,y,z locations in space. The Raster Data (model) represents features by a matrix
of cells or pixels in continuous space. Any geographical feature can be represented using either data model, but some are more suited to
a certain data type. Discrete features such as parcels of land, roads, boreholes, geological features
or rivers are typically represented using the vector model. These discrete features can be associated
with records in a database. Raster data provides a pictoral image of spatial data. Examples of raster
data include scanned maps, and remotely sensed images. Raster data are a useful representation of
continuously varying data such as ground cover, water quality, terrain elevation and contaminant
concentrations in soil.
 
2. Policy and Regulation
2.1 Policy
In the wider government context a concerted effort is being directed towards improved management 
of public sector information. At both local and national government level specific 'e-government'
targets have been set to reduce the duplication of data collection, and enable different datasets
to be linked at a fundamental level. Key to achieving the linkage between datasets is developing a schema or data dictionary for land
contamination. Such a schema does not exist for the UK. However it could be conducted under the guidance
of the UK government's E-GIF programme (http://www.govtalk.gov.uk). Notable in this regard are the US EPA (http://www.epa.gov/epahome/Data.html) and the EEA (http://ecoinfo.eionet.eu.int/eco_area_of_act_it.html#2)
who have pioneered the development of mechanisms for data pooling and reporting. Similarly the AGS
format (http://www.ags.org.uk/datatransfer/Intro.cfm) for analytical information is an important
potential resource. The site http://www.magic.gov.uk is the first web-based interactive map to bring together information
on key environmental schemes and designations in one place. MAGIC is a partnership project involving
seven government organisations who have responsibilities for rural policy-making and land management,
and although it has been designed to meet the needs of the partner organisations, the facility is available
to anyone over the Internet.
 
2.2 Regulation
Information Currently unavailable 
 
3. Funding
Site Project Funding
Information Currently Unavailable 
 
R&D funding
Soil Protection
Research Type: Applied

Topics: Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, Remediation options, Remediation options overview Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview Soil, Soil Overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

Full Details |


Soil Biodiversity Programme
Research Type: Basic

Topics: Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Soil, Soil Overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

Full Details |


URGENT (Urban Regeneration and the Environment)
Research Type: Basic

Topics: Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview Soil, Soil Overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

Full Details |


'Infrastructure and Environment' programme and 'Engineering' programme
Research Type: Basic

Topics: Engineering, Infrastructure and Environment, Brownfields, Contaminated land, Groundwater protection, Funding, Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

Full Details |


Bioremediation LINK Programme
Research Type: Applied, Basic

Topics: (1) To understand and exploit natural attenuation in groundwater and soil (demonstration, modelling, prediction, definition of operating window). (2) To improve engineered in-situ bioremediation, interfacing microbiology with engineering and hydrogeology; dealing with heterogeneity, improved process control and optimisation. (3) To translate the results of laboratory studies into the field (scale-up). (4) To position bioremediation within a risk management framework - bioavailability, risk-based end points and residue behaviour. (5) To develop the ability to monitor in-situ microbial processes. (6) To understand the constraints on in-situ microbial processes. (7) To integrate bioremediation with other technologies. (8) To quantify human health impacts of bioremediation and develop surrogate testing. (9) To address socio-economic issues- perception of bioremediation technologies and decision-support mechanisms.

Submitted by: Professor Paul Bardos  Who does what?

Full Details |


Land Contamination
Research Type: Applied

Topics: site assessment for land contamination, decision support tools for risk management, remediation of contaminated soils, sediments, and groundwater, Brownfields Contaminated land, Contaminated land overview Contaminated land, funding Groundwater protection, Groundwater protection overview

Submitted by: Maike Hauschild  Who does what?

Full Details |


Defra Web Page on: Contaminated Land - funding
Research Type: Demonstration

Topics: There are several measures which support the clean up of contaminated land, and these are described on this web page

Submitted by: Professor Paul Bardos  Who does what?

Full Details |



Market Information
A number of useful websites, data providers and data management systems are available, some of which 
are listed below Intra-Governmental Group on Geographical Information http://www.iggi.gov.uk/ CORONA http://www.shef.ac.uk/corona/ British Geological Survey http://www.bgs.ac.uk/geoindex/index.htm Ask Giraffe http://www.askgiraffe.org.uk Dublin Core Metadata Initiative http://www.dublincore.org European Environment Information and Observation Network http://www.eionet.eu.int Groundwater Software http://www.groundwatersoftware.com Internet Guide to Geographical Information Systems http://www.gis.com National Geospatial Data Framework Archive http://www.ngdf.org.uk The Association of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Specialists http://www.ags.org.uk The Open GIS Consortium http://www.opengis.org
 
4: Management tools / decision support and guidance

No further information available

5. Authors


 
    
6. Acknowledgements