In Hungary, the governmental decree on quality standards of groundwater and geological agent protection
(KöM-EüM-FVM-KHVM Decree No. 10/2000. (VI.2.)) orders that the environmental qualification of
pollutions and their effects has to be based on the limit values set out in Annex 2.
Site investigation and soil sampling has to be carried out in accordance to the MSZ 21470-1:1998
Standard. This Standard contains the basis and methodologies of soil sampling in any environmental
soil assessment including general instructions, site investigation and sampling requirements.
According to the MSZ 21470-1:1998 Standard, site investigation should explore the pollution source,
state the extent and amount of pollution spreading, identify the human and environmental risks,
and should be the basis of the selection of the adequate remediation technique.
Contaminated sites have to be investigated in at least two steps:
1. Preliminary investigation: investigation of the pollution source, the pollutant(s) and the
presumably contaminated soil providing some information about the degree of contamination.
2. Exploration survey(s): investigation of the contaminated soil that defines the quality and
degree of contamination, and the vertical and horizontal extent of the spreading as well.
Prior to the actual investigation, all available data and information have to be collected on the
contaminated or presumably contaminated sites (geological, hydrogeological, pedological, morphological
information, maps of public works, meteorological data, land use information and results of previous
The aim of the site visit (prior to preliminary investigation) is to check the already collected
data and to gather further information for the Sampling Plan. The following has to be identified during
the site visit:
- Source of pollution;
- Possible hazard of contamination;
- Duration of contamination;
- Endangered elements of the environment.
During the site visit, the vertical and horizontal extents of the pollution have to be estimated
based on the elements of the environment as the transmitters of the contamination. To ensure the effectiveness
of the exploration survey(s), the morphology, vulnerability, sensitivity of the environment,
the land use, the urban environment, the infrastructure, the detectable effects of the pollution,
and the mutation of the living organisms have to be surveyed. All gathered information has to be registered
in the Survey Report along with the map of the forecasted/estimated extent of contamination.
Before the actual sampling, a Sampling Plan has to be elaborated. It has to contain the following
- Aim of sampling (preliminary investigation or exploration survey);
- Methodology of sampling;
- Identification of the exact location of sampling points on map;
- Techniques and tools of sampling;
- Depth of sampling;
- Type of sample (average, point or biological sample);
- Number of samples;
- Identification of samples;
- Packing and transportation of samples;
- Conservation technique of samples;
- Format of sampling record;
- Assessed parameters;
- Safety-at-work rules.
If the groundwater is expected to be contaminated, it has to be sampled as well.
In case of unknown pollution source, one of the recommended systematic grid system is advised for
sampling. By considering the morphology and the direction of the pollution spreading.
Sampling has to be carried out by following the relevant Standrads. All samples have to be registered
and summarised in a Sampling Report according to the requirements of the MSZ 21470-1:1998 Standard.
General rules of environmental protection are set in the 53/1995 law that aims to develop harmonic
relation of humans and the environment, the aligned protection of the environment as a whole, its
elements and processes to ensure the long-term sustainability. The law contains the basic principles
of the environmental protection, its toolkit, responsibilities, and the rules of the uniform protection
of the environmental elements. (in Hungarian)
KöM-EüM-FVM-KHVM Decree No. 10/2000. (VI.2.) On quality standards of groundwater and geological
agent protection (in Hungarian):
MSZ 21470-1:1998 Standard can be ordered from the Hungarian Standards Institution:
In Hungarian: http://www.mszt.hu/
In English: http://www.mszt.hu/Angol/indexeng.htm
Or web order can be made in Hungarian on the following webpage of the Hungarian Standards Institution: