Further description:- Hungary  Risk management 

Glossary Entry:- Hungary  Risk management
Risk management is an approach to decision making for historically contaminated sites where the 
need for action, and the nature of any possible actions, is decided on the basis of risk assessment.
Overview
Risk management is the key issue in contaminated land remediation. This requires the assessment 
of the presumed contaminated site. The orientation assessment provides that basis for the statement
of the preliminary risk, whereas the detailed assessment identifies the contaminant(s) and the
extent of contamination. This is followed by the planning of the contamination prevention actions.
Finally, aftercare ensures the regular control of the site, and if necessary, provides the basis
for further actions or defines the future use of the site. During this process, continuous supervision
of activities is required, and priorities have to be decided in each phase of the process.
1. General Approach
Risk management is the key issue in contaminated land remediation. This requires the assessment 
of the presumed contaminated site. The orientation assessment provides that basis for the statement
of the preliminary risk, whereas the detailed assessment identifies the contaminant(s) and the
extent of contamination. This is followed by the planning of the contamination prevention actions.
Finally, aftercare ensures the regular control of the site, and if necessary, provides the basis
of the further actions or defines the future use of the site. During this process, continuous supervision
of activities is required, and priorities have to be decided in each phase of the process. The detailed assessment is ought to be paid by the obligor based on the principal reserve-targets.
Cost-effectiveness has to be studied for each remediation alternative that is also required for
the authority decision. Mitigated hazard can be achieved with: - Treatment or replacement of soil; - Prevention of further contamination spreading; - Limited or ceased use of soil. The efficiency of the soil treatment activities is necessary to examine (verification) by taking
such representative samples that can reliably prove the effect of the treatment and the mitigating
hazard. If the aftercare indicates further necessary actions those have to be carried out by the obligor.
Contamination and the use restrictions have to be registered in the land register. Based on the results of the aftercare monitoring, the entire hazard can be reconsidered from time
to time. Risk management has the following steps: I. Evaluation of preliminary information: Estimating the risk based on available information
and on a filed visit (interviews, etc.) II. Orientation phase (Comparing with background data) - On site orientation assessments - Judgement of risk - Identification of obligors III. Detailed assessment phase - Identification of main contaminants and final examination of risk (type, extent) - Decision on further steps (control, protection, remediation) - Determination of the main orientation of remediation actions IV. Remediation assessments - Selection and assessment of remediation alternatives - Authority decision based on the evaluation of alternatives - Elaboration of detailed hazard-prevention actions V. Remediation - Determination of remediation solution - Authorisation procedure VI. Monitoring, verification - Regular supervision, and further actions if necessary - Determination of the possible hazards in the future use of the site Further information: Remediation Handbook No. 2 Assessment of polluted soils (1997): http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/kiadvanyok/karmkezikk
 
2. Policy and Regulation
2.1 Policy
General rules of environmental protection are set in the 53/1995 law that aims to develop harmonic 
relation of humans and the environment, the aligned protection of the environment as a whole, its
elements and processes to ensure the long-term sustainability (in Hungarian) http://www.kvvm.hu/dokumentum.php?content_id=156
(summary) http://www.kvvm.hu/cimg/documents/1995.__vi_LIII._t_rv_ny_
 
2.2 Regulation
Governmental Decree No. 33/2000 (III.17.) on tasks relating activities affecting the quality of 
waters (in Hungarian): http://www.kvvm.hu/dokumentum.php?content_id=352 (summary) http://www.kvvm.hu/cimg/documents/33_2000_Korm.rendelet_a_
Government Decree No. 219/2004 (VII. 21.) about the duties related to activities affecting the
quality of subsurface waters (in Hungarian): http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/jogszab/jogszab12/219
KM-EM-FVM-KHVM Decree No. 10/2000. (VI.2.) On quality standards of groundwater and geological
agent protection (in Hungarian): http://www.kvvm.hu/dokumentum.php?content_id=353 (summary)
http://www.kvvm.hu/cimg/documents/10_2000_K_M_E_m_FVM_KHVM
 
3. Funding
Site Project Funding


 
        
R&D funding
No further funding information available on the EUGRIS system
Market Information


 
    
4: Management tools / decision support and guidance

No further information available

5. Authors


 
    
6. Acknowledgements