In Hungary, the need for remediation of the geological media and subsurface water was first stressed
by the subsurface water pollutions events in the early 1980s (e.g.: pollution of one of the drinking
water resources of city Vác by the Chinoin factory). In 1980s, more and more prevention actions took
place on water resources, and the damage surveying activities were also got priority after the leave
of the Soviet troops in 1990s, because in most cases, the geological media and groundwater resources
were found to be in an unfavourable condition. The process of review was further accelerated by the
environmental audits of industrial factories that were necessary to the revolution, liquidation
and privatisation of these works. Results of these surveys exhorted the actions on environmental
damage extenuation and remediation.
The National Environmental Remediation Program (OKKP) was launched by the Government order No.
2205/1996. (VII.24.) and No. 2304/1997. (X.8.) in order: (i) to detect the pollution in either geological
media or groundwater or both caused by he eliminated industrial works and the ceased military facilities;
(ii) to identify potential and presently active pollution sources; (iii) to register contaminated
areas, and (iv) to eliminate damages. Both the Governmental decree No. 219/2004. (VII. 21.) on the
protection of the groundwater bodies and the KöM-EüM-FVM-KHVM Government Regulation No. 10/2000.
(VI. 2.) facilitate the effective implementation of the OKKP program.
The objectives of the OKKP include a) identification of the magnitude of risk, extent of pollution
and deterioration of the groundwater and the geological medium, b) lowering the risk of pollution
in the endangered areas, and c) reduction of the level, or elimination of pollution in the polluted
The OKKP is a frame of actions including control, professional coordination, supervision, and
the completion of the some general and at national-level tasks. It is indispensable to establish
a monitoring system to carry out regulatory and PR activities. This monitoring system aims to collect
all sampling, observation, analytical results on common groundwater and soil database that is capable
to visualise the data in a GIS software environment and that is linked to the National Environmental
Information System (OKIR), and especially to the system of FAVI (Register System of Groundwater
and Geological Media). The general tasks also include the preparation and transaction of the national
and EU funds, and the further development of the national and international relations.
One of the national tasks is the operation and development of the FAVI information and GIS system.
Furthermore, the registration of pollution sources and contaminated sites, the data supply, and
the preparation and coordination of sub-programmes are also parts f the national tasks.
The OKKP also includes those remediation projects that were individually started by the Ministry
of Environment and Water (MoEW). In 2004, 17 remediation projects had been carried out financed by
State liability remediation tasks are carried out (according to the division of labour of the Government)
by the individual portfolios in the frame of their own sub-programmes.
Contaminated sites and pollution sources that are in the frame of the OKKP are estimated to be around
30-40 thousand. The cost of the remediation is more than 1000 billion HUF, and the necessary duration
of the remediation projects is estimated to be 30-40 years.
Future tasks of OKKP:
- Elaboration of the legal, organisational and professional conditions of the application of
historical research. The modified data submission procedure has to be taken into account.
- Development of link between the land-register and the FAVI.
- The most active use of the available EU funds.
Following the international practice, Hungarian professionals are assisted with guidelines
and reference books to act in a standardised way in survey, remediation and related polity tasks.
General rules of environmental protection are set in the 53/1995 law that aims to develop harmonic
relation of humans and the environment, the aligned protection of the environment as a whole, its
elements and processes to ensure the long-term sustainability. The law contains the basic principles
of the environmental protection, its toolkit, responsibilities, and the rules of the uniform protection
of the environmental elements.
Government order No. 2205/1996. (VII.24.) on the remediation of the left off environmental damages
on state owned sites
Government Order No. 2304/1997. (X.8.) on the mid-term period of the remediation programme of
prevention of persistent environmental damages on state owned sites
The 219/2004. (VII. 21.) Governmental Decree on the protection of ground waters has replaced the
33/2000 (III.17.) Governmental Decree. This new decree regulates the tasks and responsibilities
to achieve (i) the good status and sustainability of ground waters; (ii) the gradual decrease and
prevention of pollutions of ground waters, (iii) sustainable water use of ground water resources,
and (iv) the remediation of geological agent.
KöM-EüM-FVM-KHVM Decree No. 10/2000. (VI.2.) On quality standards of groundwater and geological