Further description:- Hungary  Contaminated land 

Glossary Entry:- Hungary  Contaminated land
Put simply, contaminated land is land containing substances at levels that would not normally be 
present. These substances may be trace elements, organic compounds, gases such as carbon dioxide
or methane, or even plant nutrients like nitrogen or phosphorous. The presence of these substances
at elevated levels may, or may not, be harmful. However, contaminated land is most often used to describe
land where there is at least a suspicion that the contamination could be harmful to humans, water,
buildings, or ecosystems. Countries may have specific legal definitions of contaminated land.
Overview
The remediation of contaminated sites are coordinated/ordered by the Hungarian National Environmental 
Remediation Program (NERP, Országos Környezetvédelmi Kármentesítési Program). Stages of NERP
are: 1. Short-term stage (1996/1997), 2. Medium-term stage (1998/2002) 3. Long-term stage (2003/2030) in alignment with the National Environmental Programme, with
six years schedules. The following leading principles are governing the implementation of NERP: 1. The principle of subsidiarity; 2. Sharing the work; 3. Uniform judgment; 4. Repeated review of decisions; 5. Compatibility with EU regulations. See “Further Description” for more details.
1. General Approach
Tasks included in NERP can be classified into three main groups:  
  1. General tasks (direction; coordination; legal and technical regulations; dissemination; 
elaboration of the funding system of NERP; establishment and maintenance of domestic and international
relations; participation in international programmes, projects and conferences; coordination
with other programmes) 2. Countrywide tasks (comprehensive, countrywide assessment of lasting environmental
damages, pollution sources; elaboration and further development of the GIS KÁRINFO database; maintenance
and continuous updating of the National Remediation Priority List; development and operation of
monitoring systems of environmental damages under state responsibility; elaboration and implementation
of sub-programmes) 3. Individual projects, investments The main stages of the individual remediation projects are: 1. Survey: Diagnostic survey exploratory phase > evaluation > detailed survey, revision
and supplementation of monitoring > evaluation > quantitative risk assessment. 2. Engineering interventions: Elimination/prevention/reduction of damages > evaluation
> repeated elimination of damages (if the first elimination was not successful) > evaluation (termination
of intervention if successful). 3. Post-monitoring: further observations (if the engineering intervention was not sufficiently
successful, then it shall be carried out again). Decision making is required in the following steps in any remediation actions: 1. Assessment of environmental damages by Regional Authority (is survey necessary?) 2. During survey by elaborator and person(s) obligated (exploration technique, suggested remediation
limit value for pollutants, regions and timeframe, suggestion for technical solution) 3. Acceptance of the results of site exploration by Regional Authority (decision on the remediation
limit value, decision whether remediation should continue) 4. Planning of the technical solution by elaborator of survey and person(s) obligated (decision
on the remediation limit value, decision whether remediation should continue, suggested technical
solutions) 5. Authorisation of technical solution by Regional Authority (acceptance of the detailed plan
of the technical solution) 6. Development of the post-monitoring plan by elaborator of survey and person(s) obligated (proposal
for the implementation and operation of a post-monitoring system) 7. Acceptance of the post-monitoring plan by Regional Authority (decision on the post-monitoring
plan) Beside the remediation actions, the followings have to be decided in the frame of the NERP programme:
8. Compilation of the priority lists by NERP decision makers (the “B” and “C” datasheets should
be filled for which site (based on the “A” datasheets), and which ones will be financed) 9. Compilation of the priority lists by NERP decision makers (which site exploration projects
will be financed) 10. Compilation of the priority lists by NERP decision makers (which projects’ technical solutions
will be financed) 11. Remediation action on a specific site by Board and Under-Secretary (which applicant(s) will
be granted) 12. Internal control of remediation by Technical supervisor (comparison of budget and progress;
approval of acceptable changes in the granted plan) 13. Governmental control by State Audit Office and Parliament (whether the use of public financial
resources were effective) 14. Allocation of the annual financial budgets by Minister (Government, Parliament) (allocation
of the annual budget of the 8-13. steps) Sources: The National Environmental Remediation Program (2002): http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/kiadvanyok/remediatio
Remediation Guideline No4: The use of cost-benefit, cost-efficiency and value evaluations in
remediation actions (in Hungarian): http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/kiadvanyok/karmutmuta
 
2. Policy and Regulation
2.1 Policy
General rules of environmental protection are set in the 53/1995 law that aims to develop harmonic 
relation of humans and the environment, the aligned protection of the environment as a whole, its
elements and processes to ensure the long-term sustainability. The law contains the basic principles
of the environmental protection, its toolkit, responsibilities, and the rules of the uniform protection
of the environmental elements. (in Hungarian) http://www.kvvm.hu/dokumentum.php?content_id=156
(summary) http://www.kvvm.hu/cimg/documents/1995.__vi_LIII._t_rv_ny_
The 57/1995 law on water management deals with the surface and groundwater, natural aquifers,
surface water channels and riparian zones. It also regulates those activities that impact or alter
the quality of waters or the structure of aquifers, the utilisation of waters, protection of water
sustainability and water resources management. Finally, the law describes the principles of monitoring
and assessment of waters, the data collection, processing, and distribution procedures, the assessment
of the state of waters and research. (in Hungarian) http://www.kvvm.hu/dokumentum.php?content_id=342
(summary) http://www.kvvm.hu/cimg/documents/1995.__vi_LVII._t_rv_ny_
 
2.2 Regulation
The Hungarian Government, in its Decision No. 2205/1996 (VII.24) adopted the National Environmental 
Remediation Programme (NERP, Országos Környezetvédelmi Kármentesítési Program) and its short-term
stage as Appendix “F” to the National Environmental Programme, while the Government Decision No.
2304/1997 rules on the tasks of the medium-term stage. Government, in its Decision No. 2205/1996 (VII.24)on the remediation of the posthumous environmental
damages under state responsibility (in Hungarian): http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/jogszab/jogszab07/047
Government Decision No. 2304/1997. (X. 8.) on the mid-term remediation programmes providing
against lasting environmental damages under state responsibility (in Hungarian) http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/jogszab/jogszab08/047
The 219/2004. (VII. 21.) Governmental Decree on the protection of ground waters has replaced the
33/2000 (III.17.) Governmental Decree. This new decree regulates the tasks and responsibilities
to achieve (i) the good status and sustainability of ground waters; (ii) the gradual decrease and
prevention of pollutions of ground waters, (iii) sustainable water use of ground water resources,
and (iv) the remediation of geological agent. (in Hungarian) http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/kormrend219-2004.htm
More orders and announcements can be read (in Hungarian) on: http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/jogszab/index.htm
 
3. Funding
Site Project Funding


 
        
R&D funding
No further funding information available on the EUGRIS system
Market Information


 
    
4: Management tools / decision support and guidance

No further information available

5. Authors


 
    
6. Acknowledgements