Hungary:- Management / administration
The aims of the Hungarian National Environmental Remediation Programme (NERP) include:
b) lowering the risk of pollution in the endangered areas, and
- c) reduction of the level, or elimination of pollution in the polluted area."
(Government Decree No. 33/2000. (III.17.) On activities that affect the quality of groundwater, sub-section (5) of section 4.)
In Hungary, environmental authorities, local municipalities, and possibly other organizations have certain knowledge on approximately 50 percentage of all contaminated areas (the full number of which is estimated to several tens of thousands). The research and processing of these data held at various places. Subsequently the registration of the pollution sources shall already provide some outline overview on those dangers. (see Figure 1). These operations shall be carried out coherently (by filling in data sheets of standardized content). The collection of these systematic data sheets enables the registry of these sites. The assessment of the potential and actual pollution sources causing long-term environmental damages requires a large amount of detailed work. To complete the existing information, site surveys shall be carried out, and new methods (e.g. aerial photography and satellite image processing) shall be applied, which can help to identify differences in the colour and extent of the vegetation from the surroundings, indicating something extraordinary on or below the ground surface, in some cases providing more information than the archives.
(read more about this in "Survey of Land Uses and Pollution Sources Damaging Groundwaters and the Geological Formation by Remote Sensing" (2001). Remediation guides No. 3., in Hungarian: http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/kiadvanyok/karmutmutato3/index.htm)
Figure 1 Flow chart of contaminated land management in Hungary (http://www.kvvm.hu/szakmai/karmentes/kiadvanyok/remediation2002/remediation2003high02.htm)
Figure 2. State tasks and responsibilities
(left column: State tasks without the responsibilities for the particular remediation projects
right column: State tasks together with the responsibilities for the particular remediation projects)
Remediation Manuals (Hungarian)
Remediation Guidance (Hungarian)
Remediation Booklets (Hungarian)
Remediation Booklets No. 7 : Commentary to the sensitivity maps (2001) (English)
Environmental Remediation (Cleanup) Program Information Brochure (1997)
The National Environmental Remediation Program (2003) (English)
Information on Groundwaters in Hungary (English, Hungarian)
Useful Web Links
Getting rid of an unwanted heritage
Flow chart of contaminated land management in Hungary in Hungarian
Flow chart of contaminated land management in Hungary in English
Ministry of Environment and Water
Department for Water and Soil Protection
Address: 1011 Budapest, Fo u. 44-50., Hungary
Mailing address: 1394 Budapest, Pf. 351, Hungary
Phone number: +36-1-457-3585
Environment Assessment and Remediation Department
Address: 1095 Budapest, Kvassay J. út 1., Hungary
Phone number: +36-1-215-6140 / 2222 ext.
List of Abbreviations
|Országos Környezeti Kármentesítési Program National
(Environmental Remediation Programme)
'VITUKI' Környezetvédelmi és Vízgazdálkodási Kutató Intézet
The effective constitution of Hungary is the Constitution of 1949 together with its amendments. Since the amendment to the Constitution proclaimed on 23 October 1989 the form of the Hungarian state has been a parliamentary republic. The Republic of Hungary is an independent and democratic state.
The supreme organ of legislature and representation is the National Assembly. Its control is exercised through questions, interpellations (ministerial questions) and committees of the National Assembly. Independent controlling bodies of Parliament: the State Audit Office and the parliamentary commissioner for citizens' rights (ombudsman). The National Assembly elects the President of the Republic, the Prime Minister, members of the Constitutional Court, the parliamentary commissioners for citizens (ombudsmen), the chairman of the Supreme Court and the Prosecutor General.
The Head of State has the following powers: signs and promulgates laws; may adjourn the sessions of or dissolve the National Assembly, sets the date for parliamentary elections; has a one-time veto power over an Act of Parliament before signing it; has wide-ranging powers to initiate measures; gives the mandate to form the cabinet and the Prime Minister is elected by the National Assembly upon his/her proposal; appoints ministers, undersecretaries, generals, judges of courts of law; has the power of individual pardon. The President of the Republic is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and has his/her own powers also in foreign affairs.
Executive power - government functions and the highest-level control of public administration - is exercised by the government, in which the Prime Minister plays a dominant role.
In municipal matters the local assembly passes regulations and performs administration independently, and may adopt local by-laws. The obligations of municipalities include elementary education, the provision of health care and basic social benefits, the enforcement of the rights of national and ethnic minorities, establishment of local titles and awards, etc.
Useful Web Links
More information on the system of State (Hungary.hu – Government Portal):
http://secure.magyarorszag.hu/angol/orszaginfo/allam/allamrendszer_a.html (English, Deutsch, Hungarian)
The Hungarian Prime Minister's Office:
http://www.meh.hu/english (English, Hungarian)
The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Hungary:
http://www.mkab.hu/ (Deutsch, English, French, Hungarian)