Further description:- France  Soil and groundwater processes 

Glossary Entry:- France  Soil and groundwater processes
Introduction to physical, chemical and biological processes which occur in soil and sediment under 
the combination of anthropogenic inputs and natural events (rainfall, infiltration,...)
Overview
The connexion between soil and groundwater contamination involves mechanical, physical, chemical 
and biological processes, both at the horizon and the soil matrix levels. The knowledge of these phenomena
is essential for the understanding of pollutant behaviour during percolation and migration through
aquifer formations.
1. General Approach
Contact between a source of contamination and a potential target or receptor depends on pollutant 
behaviour during its migration through natural media (soil and host rocks). The properties of the
pollutants and of the media, interaction between the pollutant and the media, and local conditions
(e.g. rainfall) selectively affect the migration of pollutants. A knowledge of the behaviour of each pollutant is very important for risk assessment: propagation
rate, number of (potential) targets, the extent of the pollution, etc.
 
2. Policy and Regulation
2.1 Policy
Since water resources have been identified as essential for the future, groundwater protection 
is one of the major environmental policy issues, in particular the legal framework of contaminated
land management. Water uses are taken into account in the national approach (drinking water, industrial
water, water for irrigation, recreation, etc.). Within the framework of its contaminated land approach, the French Ministry in charge of the environment
has published policy guidelines to help stakeholders and decision makers (particularly government
authorities) during the risk assessment phase of site investigations.
 
2.2 Regulation
See Groundwater Protection 
 
3. Funding
Site Project Funding
Soil and groundwater processes are the subject of numerous research projects funded by the French 
Government (Ministry of Education and Research) the European Union (5th to 7th Framework Programmes),
and/or supported by various agencies (National Research Agency – special PRECCOD funding programme,
ADEME, Water Authorities) or local communities. This research is carried out by both academic researchers
(Universities, CNRS) and government research agencies (INRA, BRGM, etc.).
 
R&D funding
No further funding information available on the EUGRIS system
Market Information
The constraints of the Water Directive on soil/groundwater transfer have market effects on auditing 
activities (impact or risk assessment), increasing the amount of work for consultants and laboratories:
•Both soil and groundwater investigations are required at potentially contaminated sites. •Pollutant transfer must be modelled. The constraints of the Water Directive on soil/groundwater transfer also affect remediation
activities, mainly in the field of exploration boreholes and confinement.
 
4: Management tools / decision support and guidance

No further information available

5. Authors


 
    
6. Acknowledgements
Guide sur le comportement des polluants dans le sol et les nappes  
Editions BRGM Document n°300  
http://www.sites-pollues.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/Doc