Contaminant hydrology
introduces to the contaminant migration from localised 
leaks or spills to groundwater or stream
Contaminants can migrate directly into groundwater from 
below-ground sources that lie within the saturated zone.
Or contaminants can enter the groundwater system from the
surface by vertical leakage through the seals around well
casings, through wells abondoned without proper procedures,
or as a result of contaminant disposal of improperly constructed
wells.

Three processes can be distinguished which govern the
transport of contaminants in groundwater: advection,
dispersion and retardation. Dispersion and density/viscosity
differences may accelerate contaminant movement, while
retardation processes can slow the movement rate. Some
contamination problems involve two or more fluids. Examples
include air, water and organic liquids in the unsaturated
zone, or organic liquids and water in an aquifer. Tracers
are useful for characterizing water flow in the saturated
and unsaturated zone.
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