In situ treatment technologies are chemical, physical,
biological, thermal or electrical processes that remove,
degrade, chemically modify, stabilise or encapsulate
contaminants within soil or groundwater (matrices) without
removing those matrices from the ground.
In situ treatments have several advantages over ex-situ
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treatments; for example they generally involve less physical
disruption to an operational site, process and waste generation
emissions - but may be harder to control.
They do have several operational difficulties, not the
least of which is overcoming heterogeneous ground conditions
and contaminant distributions. As with all remedial solutions
laboratory and field-scale trials are necessary to ensure
the technology can achieve the site's remedial objectives.
Monitoring and final verification of the remedial works
can be a significant element of the costs of using such technologies.
The further description provides an overview of different
in-situ treatment technologies and links to relevant guidance,
research, case studies etc.