Ex situ technologies are remediation options where the
affected medium (soil, water) is removed from it's original
location and cleaned on-site or off-site. Examples: bioremediation
or soil washing.
Ex situ (as well as in situ) remediation options can be grouped
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into categories based on their treatment mechanism: physical,
chemical, electrical, thermal and biological. In this
digest, physical, chemical and electrical mechanisms
have been abridged into one group, called physico-chemical.
Due to the complex nature of many polluted soils and the fact
that pollution, in many situations, is due to the presence
of a “cocktail” of different types of contaminants, it is
frequently necessary to apply more than one remediation
technique (treatment train) to reduce the concentrations
of pollutants to acceptable levels.