An introduction to the physical, chemical and biological
processes that occur in groundwater
There is groundwater under 66 % of France. There are four
different types of groundwater aquifers in France, depending
on the local geology:
•Unconfined aquifers (no overlying impermeable layer)
in sedimentary formations (sandstone, chalk, limestone)
•Confined aquifers (covered by an impermeable geological
formation) under pressure and often very deep (sand, sandstone
•Alluvial aquifers in the vast sand and gravel beds along
rivers. Because they are easy to pump and have a high yield,
they provide 60 % of the groundwater withdrawn in France.
•Groundwater in fissured formations. This can be pumped
for agriculture and small communities (granite, schist).
Policy and regulatory information
Other country information