Groundwater processes France
An introduction to the physical, chemical and biological 
processes that occur in groundwater
There is groundwater under 66 % of France. There are four 
different types of groundwater aquifers in France, depending
on the local geology:

•Unconfined aquifers (no overlying impermeable layer)
in sedimentary formations (sandstone, chalk, limestone)

•Confined aquifers (covered by an impermeable geological
formation) under pressure and often very deep (sand, sandstone
and limestone)
•Alluvial aquifers in the vast sand and gravel beds along
rivers. Because they are easy to pump and have a high yield,
they provide 60 % of the groundwater withdrawn in France.

•Groundwater in fissured formations. This can be pumped
for agriculture and small communities (granite, schist).

Further information
Technical summary
Policy and regulatory information

Other country information
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France
Germany
Hungary
Italy
UK

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