Excavation
Processes for the removal of soil and other solid material 
from the ground prior to disposal or ex situ treatment.
Excavation (and removal) is a fundamental remediation 
method involving the removal of contaminated soil/media,
which can be shipped off-site for treatment and/or disposal,
or treated on-site when contaminants are amenable to reliable
remediation techniques. Excavation is generally utilized
for localized contamination and point source and is also
used for the removal of underground structures that are
out of compliance or have been identified as a potential
or actual point source of contamination. The limiting factor
for the use of excavation is often represented by the high
unit cost for transportation and final off-site disposal.
In this respect, the on-site removal and treatment can often
yield significant savings and, in addition, the treated
soil may have beneficial secondary use (e.g. as construction
fill or road base material) at the same site.
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