All risk management options that are available and applicable
to break a pollutant linkage at a site and hence mitigate
harm to a receptor or receptors.
Remediation is the management of contamination at a site
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so as to prevent, minimize or mitigate damage to human health,
property or the environment. It is a broader term than clean
up in that remediation options can include physical actions
such as removal, destruction and containment.
Two distinct classes of soil remediation can be defined:
ex-situ (on-site or off-site application)
In-situ techniques are those where no excavation of the
contaminated soil occurs while ex-situ interventions
require excavation and treatment of contaminated soil
on the same site (ex-situ, on-site) or transporting it to
a remote site for cleaning (ex-situ, off-site). Technologies
can be grouped according to their treatment mechanism:
physical, chemical, electrical, thermal, biological.
They can have both in-situ and ex-situ applications, differing
in the technological set-up.
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