Scales
The scale problem is due to the spatiotemporal (i.e., in 
space and in time) variability of the systems of interest:
statements that concern a particular scale may (and often
will) not hold at other scales. Hence, extrapolation of
understanding to a larger or to a smaller scale may require
additional knowledge at these larger or smaller scales.
One of the major causes for uncertainty and erroneous understanding 
of causal relationships and the magnitude of parameters
and trends has been identified as being the ‘scale problem’.
Different levels of heterogeneity are encountered when
passing from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale.
With regard to complex soil and groundwater systems, the
question of a conceptual basis for combining different
sources is of concern. The scale problem is due to the spatiotemporal
(i.e., in space and in time) variability of the systems of
interest: statements that concern a particular scale may
(and often will) not hold at other scales. Hence, extrapolation
of understanding to a larger or to a smaller scale may require
additional knowledge at these larger or smaller scales.
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